Implementing change requires the participation of every member of the organization. According to the results of the March 18, 2010 "McKinsey Quarterly" survey, for example, almost 25 percent of the most successful organization transformations were planned by groups of 50 or more rather than by the highest-ranking employees only. Employee roles in planning and implementation fall into two categories, leading change and managing change, which, though interrelated, serve different but complementary functions.
Leading change usually involves primarily senior leadership, such as the KP, TKP and other senior penrarahs . They create the overall vision and plan for the change, and then delegate other members of management to oversee specific aspects.
Managing change, however, involves every level of the organization, such as Pengarah Politeknik, TP Politekniks, or department heads who implement and oversee changes within their team, and evaluate the progress and effectiveness of the changes.
The people leading the change take on most of the planning duties, including deciding when and if to make change, determining how best to implement changes, outlining the time frame and necessary steps, and delegating the roles specific employees or departments will play in the transition. They also introduce the concept of change to employees, explain their vision for the change, what the change involves, why it is necessary, how it will impact the company and what role each employee plays.
Managing change, by contrast, requires ensuring the transition goes as smoothly as possible within each level of the organization. The employees involved in this aspect must take a hands-on approach to help individuals and departments make the transition. They'll ask for feedback, make suggestions and evaluate how well everyone is responding to the change.
When an organization experiences change, there are many situations that need to be addressed. The change not only impacts management and the executive team, but it also has an effect on employees, and shareholders. Tips on managing change may help you efficiently introduce alterations to your organization model and minimize potential interruptions to your "business".
Change is the word most disliked by those who are not prepared for it. Managing change is managing the people involved. If not managed properly, unpreparedness caused the emergence of resistance. Resistance to the program change will hamper the pace of change is underway, and could thwart the program changes.Resistance to change begins at the lack of willingness to change or lack of motivation. Most organizations embrace ideology that “the organization is always right” tend not ready to change. In addition, members of the organization do not trust management practices.Readiness to change is also determined by the level of willingness and competence of members of the organization. Involve changes in methods, materials, machines (technology), and new environments and often differ significantly from the period before the change. Change requires new skills and competencies. The success of the changes determined by the quality of learning and continuous improvement.
John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change'
American John P Kotter (b 1947) is a Harvard Business School professor and leading thinker and author on organizational change management. Kotter's highly regarded books 'Leading Change' (1995) and the follow-up 'The Heart Of Change' (2002) describe a helpful model for understanding and managing change. Each stage acknowledges a key principle identified by Kotter relating to people's response and approach to change, in which people see, feel and then change.
Kotter's eight step change model can be summarised as:
1.Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.
2.Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.
3.Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.
4.Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against.
5.Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements.
6.Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.
7.Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.
8.Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture.
Related to Kotter's ideas, and particularly helpful in understanding the pressures of change on people, and people's reactions to change, see a detailed interpretation of the personal change process in John Fisher's model of the process of personal change.
john fisher's personal transition curveanxiety
The awareness that events lie outside one's range of understanding or control. I believe the problem here is that individuals are unable to adequately picture the future. They do not have enough information to allow them to anticipate behaving in a different way within the new organization. They are unsure how to adequately construe acting in the new work and social situations.
happinessThe awareness that one's viewpoint is recognised and shared by others. The impact of this is two-fold. At the basic level there is a feeling of relief that something is going to change, and not continue as before. Whether the past is perceived positively or negatively, there is still a feeling of anticipation, and possibly excitement, at the prospect of improvement. On another level, there is the satisfaction of knowing that some of your thoughts about the old system were correct (generally no matter how well we like the status quo, there is something that is unsatisfactory about it) and that something is going to be done about it. In this phase we generally expect the best and anticipate a bright future, placing our own construct system onto the change and seeing ourselves succeeding. One of the dangers in this phase is that of the inappropriate psychological contract. We may perceive more to the change, or believe we will get more from the change than is actually the case. The organization needs to manage this phase and ensure unrealistic expectations are managed and redefined in the organizations terms, without alienating the individual.
fearThe awareness of an imminent incidental change in one's core behavioural system. People will need to act in a different manner and this will have an impact on both their self-perception and on how others externally see them. However, in the main, they see little change in their normal interactions and believe they will be operating in much the same way, merely choosing a more appropriate, but new, action.
The awareness of an imminent comprehensive change in one's core behavioural structures. Here clients perceive a major lifestyle change, one that will radically alter their future choices and other people's perception of them. They are unsure as to how they will be able to act/react in what is, potentially, a totally new and alien environment - one where the "old rules" no longer apply and there are no "new" ones established as yet.
guilt Awareness of dislodgement of self from one's core self perception. Once the individual begins exploring their self-perception, how they acted/reacted in the past and looking at alternative interpretations they begin to re-define their sense of self. This, generally, involves identifying what are their core beliefs and how closely they have been to meeting them. Recognition of the inappropriateness of their previous actions and the implications for them as people can cause guilt as they realise the impact of their behaviour.
depression This phase is characterised by a general lack of motivation and confusion. Individuals are uncertain as to what the future holds and how they can fit into the future "world". Their representations are inappropriate and the resultant undermining of their core sense of self leaves them adrift with no sense of identity and no clear vision of how to operate.
disillusionment The awareness that your values, beliefs and goals are incompatible with those of the organization. The pitfalls associated with this phase are that the employee becomes unmotivated, unfocused and increasingly dissatisfied and gradually withdraws their labour, either mentally (by just "going through the motions", doing the bare minimum, actively undermining the change by criticising/complaining) or physically by resigning.
hostility Continued effort to validate social predictions that have already proved to be a failure. The problem here is that individual's continue to operate processes that have repeatedly failed to achieve a successful outcome and are no longer part of the new process or are surplus to the new way of working. The new processes are ignored at best and actively undermined at worst.
denialThis stage is defined by a lack of acceptance of any change and denies that there will be any impact on the individual. People keep acting as if the change has not happened, using old practices and processes and ignoring evidence or information contrary to their belief systems.
It can be seen from the transition curve that it is important for an individual to understand the impact that the change will have on their own personal construct systems; and for them to be able to work through the implications for their self perception. Any change, no matter how small, has the potential to impact on an individual and may generate conflict between existing values and beliefs and anticipated altered ones.
One danger for the individual, team and organization occurs when an individual persists in operating a set of practices that have been consistently shown to fail (or result in an undesirable consequence) in the past and that do not help extend and elaborate their world-view. Another danger area is that of denial where people maintain operating as they always have denying that there is any change at all. Both of these can have detrimental impact on an organization trying to change the culture and focus of its people.
John M Fisher 2000 updated 2003 (disillusionment stage added).
© John Fisher's Transition Curve 2003-7, adapted by Gloria May, hypnotherapist. Diagrams and personal change theory from www.businessballs.com.
The Lewis-Parker 'Transition Curve' model approaches personal change from a different perspective to the Fisher model, and is represented in a seven stage graph, based on original work by Adams, Hayes and Hopkins in their 1976 book Transition, Understanding and Managing Personal Change. The Lewis-Parker 'Transition Curve' seven stages are summarised as follows:
1.Immobilisation - Shock. Overwhelmed mismatch: expectations v reality.
2.Denial of Change - Temporary retreat. False competence.
3.Incompetence - Awareness and frustration.
4.Acceptance of Reality - 'Letting go'.
5.Testing - New ways to deal with new reality.
6.Search for Meaning - Internalisation and seeking to understand.
7.Integration - Incorporation of meanings within behaviours.'
The Lewis-Parker 'Transition Curve' contains interesting parallels at certain stages with the 'Conscious Competence' learning model, which is another helpful perspective for understanding change and personal development.