Perbincangan dengan Pn SJ Pengarah Bahagian Kecemerlangan Instruktional yang melibatkan Pareto Principle.
Prinsip Pareto atau Hukum Pareto telah dihasilkan oleh seorang ahli ekonomi Itali bernama Vilfredo Pareto dalam tahun 1906. Vilfredo Pareto membina formula matematik bagi menerangkan ketidaksetaraan agihan kekayaan bagi negaranya dimana 20% daripada penduduknya menguasai 80 % kekayaan negara. Lewat tahun 1940an Dr. Joseph M. Juran pula mempopularkan atribut 80/20 hukum Pareto ini. Walaupun ia banyak digunakan dalam bidang pengurusan, Ia tidak dikenali sebagai Hukum Juran mungkin atas kejangalan sebutannya tetapi dikekalkan sebagi prinsip atau hukum Pareto atau Hukum 80/20.
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan Hukum 80/20 ini.
Menurut Juran hukum 80/20 ini adalah berasaskan kepada "vital few and trivial many". Ini bermaksud “anything a few (20 percent) are vital and many(80 percent) are trivial. 20 percent of something always are responsible for 80 percent of the results”. Lihat contoh-contoh di bawah:
i. 20 percent of the people owned 80 percent of the wealth.
ii. 20 percent of the defects causing 80 percent of the problems
iii. 20 percent of the work (the first 10 percent and the last 10 percent) consume 80 percent of your time and resources
iv. 20 percent of the defects causing 80 percent of the problems.
v. 80 percent of your stock comes from 20 percent of your suppliers
vi. 80 percent of your sales will come from 20 percent of your sales staff.
vii. 20 percent of your staff will cause 80 percent of your problems,
viii. 20 percent of your staff will provide 80 percent of your production.
ix. 80% of most tasks can be completed in 20% of the time
Pareto Analysis is a simple technique for prioritizing possible changes by identifying the problems that will be resolved by making these changes. By using this approach, you can prioritize the individual changes that will most improve the situation.
Pareto Analysis uses the Pareto Principle – also known as the "80/20 Rule" – which is the idea that 20% of causes generate 80% of results. With this tool, we're trying to find the 20% of work that will generate 80% of the results that doing all of the work would deliver.
Step 1: Identify and List Problems
Firstly, write a list of all of the problems that you need to resolve. Where possible, talk to clients and team members to get their input, and draw on surveys, helpdesk logs and suchlike, where these are available.
Step 2: Identify the Root Cause of Each Problem
For each problem, identify its fundamental cause. (Techniques such as Brainstorming, the 5 Whys, Cause and Effect Analysis, and Root Cause Analysis will help with this.)
Step 3: Score Problems
Now you need to score each problem. The scoring method you use depends on the sort of problem you're trying to solve.For example, if you're trying to improve profits, you might score problems on the basis of how much they are costing you. Alternatively, if you're trying to improve customer satisfaction, you might score them on the basis of the number of complaints eliminated by solving the problem.
Step 4: Group Problems Together By Root Cause
Next, group problems together by cause. For example, if three of your problems are caused by lack of staff, put these in the same group.
Step 5: Add up the Scores for Each Group
You can now add up the scores for each cause group. The group with the top score is your highest priority, and the group with the lowest score is your lowest priority.
Step 6: Take Action
Now you need to deal with the causes of your problems, dealing with your top-priority problem, or group of problems, first. Keep in mind that low scoring problems may not even be worth bothering with - solving these problems may cost you more than the solutions are worth.